In 2020, almost all principals (97 per cent) worked overtime and close to 70 per cent worked more than 56 hours a week during school term, and 25 hours a week during the holidays.
Their main sources of stress were the sheer quantity of work, the lack of time to focus on teaching and learning, the mental health issues of students and the expectations of the employer.
This is added to by an aging principal body, school leaders have on average 27 years’ experience in the school environment, a staggering 47.5 per cent of school leaders are over 56 years of age, 5.5 per cent of school leaders are over 66 years of age, almost 7 per cent (6.8 per cent) of school leaders plan to retire this year in 2021.
There has been a steady increase in bullying, physical violence, slander, sexual harassment, threats of violence and verbal harassment towards principals.
Offensive behaviour by parents and students towards school leaders by state and territory, compared to the general population is remarkably high, almost half principals received threats of violence or actual physical violence. Of Tasmanian principals, 57 per cent received threats of violence, the highest in the country.
More than 40 per cent of principals reported being exposed to threats of violence or being a victim of physical violence in 2020. This is up to nine times greater than the general population. However, several categories of offensive behaviours decreased in 2020 which is attributed to the reduced face-to-face contact with parents.
ACU Institute for Positive Psychology and Education (IPPE) Professor Herb Marsh said, “Three of out 10 school leaders (almost 30 per cent) received a red flag email alerting them to contact employee support services. These alert emails are triggered when school leaders are at risk of self-harm, occupational health problems or serious impacts to their quality of life.”
The findings are from the Australian Principal Occupational, Health, Safety and Wellbeing Survey 2020, jointly conducted by researchers at Australian Catholic University (ACU) and Deakin University, which surveyed 2,248 school principals across all states and the territories.
Now in its 10th year, the longitudinal study has tracked trends in the health, wellbeing, and safety of school leaders and made policy recommendations to both government and key stakeholders.
ACU investigator and IPPE Professor Phil Parker added, “Over the past decade, principals report a steady increase in job demands with no real increase in support services. The surveys have shown us that school leaders need support to maintain a healthy work-life balance.”
Deakin University’s Professor Phil Riley and co-chief investigator said the survey shone a light on “a year like no other” for school leaders.
“As well as needing to quickly develop on-line learning practices, school principals were faced with managing COVID-safe processes to protect their employees, students, and parents from a global pandemic.
“Although schools were classed as essential services, and told to stay open to protect the economy, they were not privy to vital information. Particularly at the start of COVID-19, school leaders had to listen to the news to find out what to do with their schools’ operations.”
However, Professor Riley said there was a bright spot, “The survey has shown us the pandemic’s lockdowns and restrictions reminded communities about the vital role school leaders play. Ironically, COVID-19 could herald a positive shift in community attitudes towards school principals.”
There are 16 key recommendations in the report, among them are: